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the body



The human body is one complex network, universally accepted as the most intriguing construct. It is certainly the most widely studied structure the world over. Undermentioned are little- and well-known facts about the human body.

A vast array of aspects concerning the human body have been comprehended; however, there are facets that await a treatment for thorough analysis. The head, neck, torso, a pair of arms and legs, respectively constitute the external view of the body, often described as the superficial, first-layer of the human body. However, internally, the structure is far complex and intricate. Know that there are 11 organ systems of the body: Circulatory System, Respiratory System, Immune System, Skeletal System, Excretory System, Urinary System, Muscular System, Endocrine System, Digestive System, Nervous System, and Reproductive System.



from bodytomy


Foods That Resemble Human Body Parts… and Help Them, Too!

The human body is marked by its structural complexity, and maintaining health with the right foods is of paramount importance. However, besides eating right, it’s eating smart that gains a stronger foothold in the health department. It is found that there are certain foods that share an uncanny resemblance with the parts of the human body, thereby deemed effective in maintaining the specific part of the body, too. Thus, in order to keep your body and mind healthy, undermentioned are foods that help maintain them.

Walnuts ⇆ Brain
Now this nut is a give away for sure. Walnuts, pound for pound, resemble the human brain. The folds and crevices, too, of the brain are mimicked perfectly by nature. Rich in omega-3 fatty acids, regular consumption of this nut facilitates the functions of the brain.

Carrots ⇆ Eyes
Health care providers perpetually recommend to nibble on carrots to keep your eyes healthy and active. Besides its befitting benefits, you must notice the radial pattern when the carrot is sliced diametrically. Get closer, and you are sure to find a striking resemblance between the human eye and the carrot slice. The pattern created looks like the pupil and iris. The most important component — beta-carotene — is potent in reducing the risk of cataracts.

Mushroom ⇆ Ears
Slice open a mushroom, and you’ll that it looks like the ears. You must know that mushrooms contain vitamin D in abundance which is deemed essential for effective hearing. Vitamin D is also essential in maintaining bone health in the ears, which include the malleus, incus, and strapes that aid in receiving sounds and transmitting the same to the brain.

Orange ⇆ Breasts
The relation between oranges and breasts may go well beyond the obvious factor of resemblance. Oranges and grapefruits, too, maintain breast health and facilitate the movement of lymph in the breasts. Besides, grapefruits have a component called limonoids that help in reducing the risk of developing breast cancer.

Tomato ⇆ Heart
Tomatoes look like the heart. It is red; and when sliced into halves, it generally has four chambers — characteristics that resemble the heart. Tomatoes are known to be high in lycopene — a plant chemical that protects the heart and reduces its risks of succumbing to a cardiac arrest.

Ginger ⇆ Stomach
Ginger root is one spice that more or less resembles the stomach. Besides being added to enhance flavors of your dish, ginger also aids in effective digestion.

Kidney Beans ⇆ Kidneys
There is no doubt that kidney beans look like kidneys. They help to facilitate the smooth functioning of the kidneys.

Sweet Potato ⇆ Pancreas
A look at the sweet potato and it tells you what it’s meant for. Bearing resemblance to the pancreas, sweet potatoes are rich in beta-carotene that helps prevent the adverse effects of aging on the tissues of the body. Besides, it is also known to maintain one’s glycemic index, thus aiding those with diabetes.

Celery ⇆ Bones
Celery is one food that concentrates on bone density. Bones are known to consist of 23% sodium and coincidentally celery, too, contains 23% sodium.

Avocados ⇆ Uterus
Avocados along with pears, have an appearance that is strikingly similar to the womb and cervix of the female body. Besides, it corrects hormone imbalance and reduces the risk of succumbing to cervical cancer.

Clams ⇆ Testes
Rich in zinc and folic acid, clams resemble the testicles. It is known to improve the quality of semen in men.


The brain aids us to think, comprehend, and create. Marked by folds that meander through the surface area of the brain, the signals in the form of information, are passed from the brain as they navigate through the spinal cord, and then transported to other parts of the body. Know that the brain has four sections: the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem.


Regarded as the most vital organ of the respiratory system, a pair of lungs is located inside the chest, their primary function being the release of oxygen into the blood and extricating carbon dioxide from the blood. The trachea – also known as the windpipe – serves as the passageway for inhalation. When oxygen passes through the trachea into the lungs, it goes through tiny air sacs called alveoli. As oxygen penetrates the alveoli, the carbon dioxide is extricated from the blood as we exhale.

❒ Know This (?)
As astounding as it may sound, the lungs consist of over 300,000 capillaries. If they stretched into a line, placed end to end, the distance they would cover would be approximately 2400 km!


The heart is the most active muscular organ, residing marginally on the left section of the body that tirelessly supplies blood to the entire system. The heart pumps and circulates blood through the body, following a contraction-relaxation cycle. Blood is carried throughout the body through the capillaries, while the coronary arteries supply blood to the heart.

❒ Know This (?)
The heart can beat all by itself even after being separated from the body. The heart possesses its own electric impulse that causes it to function without the body, provided that it receives a constant supply of oxygen.


An important organ of the digestive system, the liver is located below the diaphragm and to the right of the stomach. The major function of the liver is to process and store substances ingested through the mouth, and those that we inhale and absorb via the epidermal layers. It essays an essential role in extricating matter that can be potentially toxic.

❒ Know This (?)
The liver is a very hardworking organ that filters more than a liter of blood per minute.


The stomach is another vital organ of the digestive system. The substances ingested will pass the esophagus and lead its way into the stomach. The stomach stores food for a short period while the lining releases hydrochloric acid to facilitate the break down of food. The digestive acid it secretes is very strong and thus kills the bacteria that may cause damage to the lining of the stomach. It is protected from the harmful effects of the acid, by a mucosal substance that lines the abdominal cavity. The process reduces solid food into soft, mush-like matter which is then transported to the small intestine, that continues the process of digestion.

❒ Know This (?)
A new stomach lining is formed within a period of three to four days. Why? Well, know that the digestive acids produced in the stomach are so strong, that they might as well burn a hole, quite literally, through your stomach wall.


The spleen is an organ that helps fight infection and balances bodily fluids. It cleanses the blood of bacteria and other harmful substances that may pose a threat to the smooth functioning of the entire system. The spleen also functions as the exterminator of toxicities along with unhealthy red blood cells.

❒ Know This (?)
In Ancient Greece, it was believed that the body consisted of fluids that may adversely affect an individual’s mood. The spleen was held responsible for making people feel sad or what was known as melancholia. It was believed that the spleen produced a black-colored fluid which interfered with the normal functioning of the system.


The pancreas is an organ located above the small intestine. It secretes digestive juices into the duodenum and aids in efficient digestion. Besides, it also controls sugar levels in the blood.

❒ Know This (?)
Researchers suggest that the pancreas consists of taste receptors that can identify sweet substances.


The gallbladder resides under the liver and collects bile produced in the liver. It releases the bile after extracting water content from it into the small intestine, to facilitate the breakdown of fat and protein ingested through the food we consume.

❒ Know This (?)
The gallbladder mimics the mechanism of a balloon. Before a meal, the gallbladder enlarges itself with bile. The bile is released into the small intestine to digest fat and protein; this extraction of bile leads the gallbladder to deflate.


Located toward the rear of the body, the kidneys are a pair of organs that cleanse blood and regulate water levels in the body. The primary function of the kidney is to extract water accompanied with other constituents from the blood. Waste matter is extricated from the system in the form of urine. Besides, the kidneys are also responsible for filtering blood and regulating blood pressure.

❒ Know This (?)
Healthy kidneys work toward filtering approximately two gallons of blood every hour.


The bladder holds liquid waste matter — the urine. When the bladder starts to inflate, it triggers a signal to the brain indicating that its capacity is exhausted, and it needs to be relieved. The urine travels from the bladder through a tube called the urethra to be extricated from the body.

❒ Know This (?)
The urethra of a female’s is shorter, i.e., approximately 2.5 cm; whereas, in men, the passage is approximately 15 cm.

Small Intestine

The small intestine is a coiled organ where food passes through, beginning from the duodenum where the food intermixes with bile to facilitate the break down of fat and protein. The intestine is lined with microvilli; they are tiny projections that help in the absorption of nutrients from the food ingested.

❒ Know This (?)
The length of the small intestine is 18 to 23 feet, and is longer than the large intestine. It’s diametrically smaller than the large intestine; this is precisely the reason why the small intestine is regarded as “small.”

Large Intestine

The large intestine constitutes the cecum and the colon. As the break down of food is a process conducted in the small intestine, the role of the large intestine is to absorb water and minerals, and process the remains of the digested food into fecal matter.

❒ Know This (?)
The large intestine houses more than 700 species of bacteria. They are a source of vitamins and are deemed essential for the body.


The appendix is a small, finger-like structure, attached to the large intestine. Thought to be useless, it is an organ much speculated for its role in the human body.

❒ Know This (?)
As mentioned, the appendix performs no apparent function in the human body. However, researchers are of the opinion that the appendix is a rather useful organ to deal with certain issues, with regard to digestion. Besides, researchers suspect that the appendix may save you from pernicious infections as well.

Uterus and Ovaries

The uterus – also known as the womb – is a pear-shaped organ. The cervix forms the lower section of the uterus, that opens into the vagina. The other major section of the uterus is regarded as the corpus, and serves as an expandable vessel that has the capacity to hold a growing fetus. The uterus has two oval-shaped glands on either of its sides, known as the ovaries.

❒ Know This (?)
The uterus is 2 to 3 cm thick, while in length it is 6 to 8 cm, approximately.

Testes and Penis

The testes is the male gonad; this being a part of the reproductive system. The function of the testes is to produce sperm and testosterone. The penis is a sexual organ, functioning as the passageway to pass urine and ejaculate

     Infectious diseases

Public Health EnglandDepartment for Environment, Food & Rural AffairsDepartment of Health and Social CareAnimal and Plant Health AgencyFood Standards Agency, and Veterinary Medicines Directorate

A to Z

  1. Acinetobacter species

  2. Amoebiasis: public health operational guidelines

  3. Anthrax: guidance, data and analysis

  4. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

  5. Avian influenza: guidance, data and analysis

  6. Bacillus species (food poisoning)

  7. Bartonella

  8. Bloodborne infections in blood, tissue and organ donors (BIBD): guidance, data and analysis

  9. Bloodborne viruses in healthcare workers: report exposures and reduce risks

  10. Botulism: diagnosis, data and analysis

  11. Botulism: reporting questionnaires

  12. Brucella reference unit (BRU): managing laboratory exposure

  13. Brucella: laboratory and clinical services

  14. Brucellosis: veterinary exposure

  15. COVID-19: guidance for health professionals

  16. Campylobacter: guidance, data and analysis

  17. Candida auris

  18. Carbapenem resistance: guidance, data and analysis

  19. Chikungunya

  20. Chlamydia abortus: epidemiology, transmission and prevention

  21. Chlamydia: surveillance, data, screening and management

  22. Cholera

  23. Clostridioides difficile: guidance, data and analysis

  24. Clostridium perfringens

  25. Common animal-associated infections quarterly reports: 2019

  26. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD): guidance, data and analysis

  27. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines

  28. Cryptosporidiosis: guidance, data and analysis

  29. Cyclospora: clinical and travel guidance

  30. Dengue fever: guidance, data and analysis

  31. Diphtheria: guidance, data and analysis

  32. Ebola virus disease: clinical management and guidance

  33. Emerging infections

  34. Enterococcus species and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)

  35. Enterovirus D-68: risk assessment

  36. Escherichia coli (E. coli): guidance, data and analysis

  37. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs): guidance, data, analysis

  38. Fungal infections

  39. Gastrointestinal infections: guidance, data and analysis

  40. Genital herpes

  41. Genital warts and human papillomavirus: guidance, data and analysis

  42. Giardia: guidance and data

  43. Giardia: national laboratory data

  44. Gonorrhoea: guidance, data and analysis

  45. Gram-negative bacteria: prevention, surveillance and epidemiology

  46. Group A streptococcal infections: guidance and data

  47. Group B streptococcal infections: guidance, data and analysis

  48. Group C and group G streptococcus: guidance, data and analysis

  49. Guidance for consumers on coronavirus (COVID-19) and food

  50. HIV: surveillance, data and management

  51. Haemophilus influenzae: guidance, data and analysis

  52. Hantaviruses

  53. Head lice (pediculosis)

  54. Health protection in schools and other childcare facilities

  55. Healthcare associated infections (HCAI): guidance, data and analysis

  56. Hepatitis A: guidance, data and analysis

  57. Hepatitis B: guidance, data and analysis

  58. Hepatitis C: guidance, data and analysis

  59. Hepatitis E: guidance, data and analysis

  60. High consequence infectious diseases (HCID)

  61. Hospital Norovirus Outbreak Reporting System: user guidance

  62. Human animal infections and risk surveillance group (HAIRS)

  63. Human parainfluenza viruses: guidance and data

  64. Impetigo: guidance, data and analysis

  65. Infectious diseases during pregnancy: screening, vaccination and treatment

  66. Klebsiella species: guidance, data and analysis

  67. Lassa fever: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines

  68. Legionnaires' disease: guidance, data and analysis

  69. Leprosy: memorandum (2012)

  70. Leptospirosis

  71. Listeria: guidance, data and analysis

  72. Lyme disease test request form

  73. Lyme disease: resources and guidance

  74. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): guidance, data and analysis

  75. MERS-CoV: clinical management and guidance

  76. Malaria: guidance, data and analysis

  77. Marburg virus disease: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines

  78. Measles: guidance, data and analysis

  79. Meningococcal disease: guidance, data and analysis

  80. Monkeypox

  81. Mumps: epidemiology, surveillance and control

  82. Mycobacterium chimaera: infections linked to heater cooler units

  83. Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  84. Necrotising fasciitis (NF)

  85. Nipah virus: epidemiology, outbreaks and guidance

  86. Norovirus: guidance, data and analysis

  87. Notifiable diseases in animals

  88. Orf: characteristics and diagnosis

  89. Pandemic flu: public health response

  90. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL): guidance, data and analysis

  91. Parvovirus B19: guidance, data and analysis

  92. Pasteurellosis: characteristics, diagnosis and management

  93. People who inject drugs: infection risks, guidance and data

  94. Pertussis: guidance, data and analysis

  95. Plague: epidemiology, outbreaks and guidance

  96. Pneumococcal disease: guidance, data and analysis

  97. Polio: guidance, data and analysis

  98. Pontiac fever

  99. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: guidance, data and analysis

  100. Psittacosis

  101. Q fever infections in humans: sources, transmission, treatment

  102. Rabies: risk assessment, post-exposure treatment, management

  103. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): guidance, data and analysis

  104. Respiratory viruses

  105. Rotavirus: guidance, data and analysis

  106. Rubella (German measles): guidance, data and analysis

  107. STIs: surveillance, data, screening and management

  108. Salmonella Typhi resistant to third-generation cephalosporins

  109. Salmonella: guidance, data and analysis

  110. Scarlet fever: guidance and data

  111. Seasonal influenza: guidance, data and analysis

  112. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: guidance, data and analysis

  113. Shigella: guidance, data and analysis

  114. Shingles: guidance and vaccination programme

  115. Staphylococcus aureus: guidance, data and analysis

  116. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

  117. Streptococcal infections

  118. Surgical site infection (SSI): guidance, data and analysis

  119. Syphilis: surveillance, data and management

  120. Tetanus: guidance, data and analysis

  121. Toxoplasmosis: diagnosis, epidemiology and prevention

  122. Tuberculosis (TB): diagnosis, screening, management and data

  123. Typhoid and paratyphoid: guidance, data and analysis

  124. Unusual illness: investigation and management of outbreaks and incidents

  125. Vaccines Project annual review: 2018

  126. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: epidemiology, characteristics, diagnosis and management

  127. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines

  128. West Nile virus: epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention

  129. Yellow fever: guidance, data and analysis

  130. Zika virus (ZIKV): clinical and travel guidance

  131. Zoonotic diseases (zoonoses): guidance, data and analysis

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